This available textbook is the one creation to linguistics during which every one bankruptcy is written by way of a professional who teaches classes on that subject, making sure balanced and uniformly very good insurance of the whole variety of recent linguistics. Assuming no past wisdom the textual content bargains a transparent creation to the normal subject matters of structural linguistics (theories of sound, shape, which means, and language change), and likewise offers complete assurance of contextual linguistics, together with separate chapters on discourse, dialect edition, language and tradition, and the politics of language. There also are up to date separate chapters on language and the mind, computational linguistics, writing, baby language acquisition, and second-language studying. The breadth of the textbook makes it perfect for introductory classes on language and linguistics provided via departments of English, sociology, anthropology, and communications, in addition to by means of linguistics departments.
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Phonology studies how languages organize sounds into different patterns. Phonologists ask questions such as: ◆ How do languages organize sounds to distinguish different words? ◆ How do languages restrict, or constrain, sequences of sounds? ◆ What sorts of changes (alternations) do sounds undergo if sequences arise that don’t obey the restrictions? ◆ How are sounds organized into larger constituents (syllables, words, phrases)? We begin with phonetics, the study of how speech sounds are made and perceived, and then discuss phonology, the study of how a language organizes those speech sounds into a meaningful system.
To begin to speak, you pull down your diaphragm, the big muscle that separates your chest cavity from your stomach. This enlarges the lungs, which draws air in. Then the diaphragm relaxes and the muscles around the ribs contract, slowly squeezing the lungs and forcing the air out and up the windpipe, or trachea. At the top of the trachea is a little box of cartilage, called the larynx (the “adam’s apple”). Inside the larynx, two folds of soft tissue, called the vocal folds (sometimes called ‘vocal cords’), lie across the top of the trachea.
Constrictions can also be made deep in the throat, with the tongue root moving back toward the pharyngeal wall. Voiced and voiceless pharyngeal fricatives are found in Arabic and Hebrew. Finally, consonants can be made with the larynx as the only articulator. The sound [h] consists of the noise of air rushing through the open vocal folds, and may be considered a laryngeal fricative. It is also possible to close the vocal folds up tight, stopping the airflow at the larynx, a glottal stop (IPA [/]).
An Introduction to Language and Linguistics