# New PDF release: Advanced R

ISBN-10: 1466586974

ISBN-13: 9781466586970

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Example text

4 • Zero returns a zero-length vector. This is not something you usually do on purpose, but it can be helpful for generating test data. x[0] #> numeric(0) If the vector is named, you can also use: • Character vectors to return elements with matching names. 2 Lists Subsetting a list works in the same way as subsetting an atomic vector. Using [ will always return a list; [[ and \$, as described below, let you pull out the components of the list. 3 Matrices and arrays You can subset higher-dimensional structures in three ways: • With multiple vectors.

It is not a speciﬁc test for double vectors, which are often called numeric. 2 Coercion All elements of an atomic vector must be the same type, so when you attempt to combine diﬀerent types they will be coerced to the most ﬂexible type. Types from least to most ﬂexible are: logical, integer, double, and character. For example, combining a character and an integer yields a character: str(c("a", 1)) #> chr [1:2] "a" "1" Data structures 17 When a logical vector is coerced to an integer or double, TRUE becomes 1 and FALSE becomes 0.

Blank subsetting is now useful because it lets you keep all rows or all columns. a <- matrix(1:9, nrow = 3) colnames(a) <- c("A", "B", "C") a[1:2, ] #> A B C #> [1,] 1 4 7 #> [2,] 2 5 8 a[c(T, F, T), c("B", "A")] #> B A #> [1,] 4 1 #> [2,] 6 3 a[0, -2] #> A C By default, [ will simplify the results to the lowest possible dimensionality. 1 to learn how to avoid this. Because matrices and arrays are implemented as vectors with special attributes, you can subset them with a single vector. In that case, they will behave like a vector.