By University of Hawaii at Manoa Alexander Vovin
Including half 1 of a similar grammar (Sources, Script and Phonology, Lexicon and Nominals), this two-volume set represents the main exact and exhaustive description ever performed of any language, together with jap of the outdated eastern language of the Yamato quarter in the course of the Asuka Nara interval. It provides 1000's of examples drawn not just from the foremost outdated jap texts equivalent to the Man'yoshu, the Senmyo, the Kojiki kayo and the Nihonshoki kayo but in addition from all minor extant texts akin to the Fudoky kayo, the Bussoku seki ka, and others. it is usually comparative fabric from japanese outdated jap as soon as spoken within the sector approximately equivalent to present-day southern Chubu and Kanto areas, in addition to from Ryukyuan and infrequently from different surrounding languages. half 2 is observed by way of exhaustive and cumulative indexes to either volumes, together with separate indexes on all grammatical kinds defined, linguistic types, own names, in addition to an index of all outdated eastern texts which are used as examples within the description.
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Additional resources for A Descriptive and Comparative Grammar of Western Old Japanese: Part 2: Adjectives, Verbs, Adverbs, Conjunctions, Particles, Postpositions
MYS IX: 1740) ,t~ f~ -'¥- ~JbJF TASlKA NAR-U TUKAPYI-wo NA-MYI to certain be-ATTR messenger-ABS no-GER DV thinking that there is no reliable messenger (MYS XII: 2874) For detailed discussion see (Vovin 2003: 93-94). If a noun is separated from a -ka adjective by another modifier, the -ka adjective is marked by the infinitive form n-i of the copula n-, see the example from SM 7 below. ~~~*~~*~~ff*~ •• 7 .. TU~Kq:rq. ~%j"}j ~ f=I3A~JL'-'f~3C lMASI-tati pa SANTAKA n-i AKA-kyi KOKORO-wo MOT-I-te you-PLUR TOP loyal DV-INF bright-ATTR heart-ACC hold-INFSUB you, with loyal and clear hearts ...
1. l0~t Japanese hngUlsts as 'adjectival verbs' (*7 ~ tb lim kelyodoshl) (Tojo 1937: 313-15; Tsukishima 1968: 123), although other treat them as nouns (Tokieda 1950: 131). Similarly, there is no agreement among Western scholars on the nature of these words. ADJECTIVES 441 Some linguists define them as adjectival nouns (Martin 1988: 17981), or as adjectives (Henderson 1948: 179; Fel'dman 1960: 5; Alpatov 1979b: 44-5). I believe that it is appropriate to classify these words in Modem Japanese as adjectives.
It. : great lord's) order is awesome, [I] came [here] crossing mountains where dark clouds trail (MYS XX: 4403) A2: Ryukyuan In modem Ryukyuan dialects, as far I can tell, all adjectives are inflected, and there are no cases when an adjectival stem can modify a following noun or a noun phrase. - G~:::. : white) northern wind blows (OS VII: 349) *~ OPOto big sea big sea (OS XIII: 956) t:. rJ taka kafa-no midu high river-GEN water water from an upper [part] of a river (OS XVII: 1222) Certainly, one can argue that since this construction is limited only to Old Ryukyuan it was likely borrowed from Middle Japanese.
A Descriptive and Comparative Grammar of Western Old Japanese: Part 2: Adjectives, Verbs, Adverbs, Conjunctions, Particles, Postpositions by University of Hawaii at Manoa Alexander Vovin